Nephropathy (AGE/Kidney Damage) Studies


  • Provides 420% more protection against end-stage renal (kidney) disease than thiamine. (Frank 1999)


  • Inhibits renal and vascular disease in obese rats. (Alderson 2003)
  • Improves function in AGE-damaged kidneys of diabetic rats. (Kakuta 2005)
  • Lowers kidney stone excretion in experimental animals by 50%. (Scheinman 2005)
  • Inhibits early renal disease in diabetic rats. (Degenhardt 2002)